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CHAPTER 7

TRANSPORT

BACKGROUND

7.1 Transport plays an important role in the economy, both at national and local levels. However, the considerable growth in road transport and the resulting environmental problems are beginning to influence transport strategies both nationally and locally. Much of the air pollution in built-up areas is caused by vehicle emissions. More than a quarter (28%) of carbon dioxide emissions in the U.K. come from road transport. Carbon dioxide is one of the major contributors to the 'greenhouse effect'. Vehicle emissions, therefore, harm the environment both locally and globally. It is necessary to encourage a switch to forms of transport which are more environmentally sustainable. Government guidance in PPG13 - 'Transport' (1994) gives a strong commitment to introducing measures which will reduce the impact of transport on the environment and influence the rate of traffic growth. PPG13 emphasises the need to integrate transport and land-use policies because "the location and nature of development affect the amount and method of travel, and the pattern of development is itself influenced by transport infrastructure and transport policies". PPG13 advises local authorities to co-ordinate their policies for transport and other forms of development and to aim to reduce the need to travel, especially by car.

7.2 Trunk roads, including the M1 motorway, are the responsibility of the Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions and are managed on a day to day basis by the Highways Agency on behalf of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). Other adopted roads are the responsibility of the county council, as highway authority, which also has overall responsibility for the transport strategy and this is set out in the Derbyshire Structure Plan. This strategy is reflected in the annual Transport Policies and Programme (TPP) submission to the DETR and into the draft Local Transport Plan. In addition to the structure plan, the county council has also produced a "Transportation Strategy", (1995) which sets down the county council's objectives for transport policy. The district council, as local planning authority, has a contribution to make towards these transport objectives in the local plan, by ensuring its land-use policies reflect these aims, and by introducing proposals which can be included in the Local Transport Plan.

AIMS

7.3 The aims of the local plan for transport are:

1. To provide comprehensive transport links to the district's commercial and other major activities as part of the overall strategy of securing the economic regeneration and welfare of the area.

2. To ensure maximum accessibility for both residents and visitors to the area by making efficient and effective use of existing road space and by promoting the use of public transport, cycling, horseriding and walking.

3. To minimise the impact of transport upon the general environment, and upon the amenity and safety of residential areas, town centres and pedestrianised areas.

4. To ensure that new development is located where it is readily accessible by public transport.

5. To ensure accessible transport is available for all.

REDUCING RELIANCE ON THE PRIVATE CAR

7.4 The district council will contribute to the development of a sustainable transport system by encouraging mixed-use developments in locations which are well served by public transport. This will make the best use of the transport network. Most of the settlements in the plan area already have a mix of employment and housing land uses, or the potential to create or recreate this mix. The district council proposes to encourage this mixture of land uses where it can help to create sustainable communities for people to live and work in. This approach reflects the policies of the structure plan and complies with the principles of the Road Traffic Reduction Act, 1997.

7.5 It is now recognised both nationally and locally that the use of public transport should be encouraged for environmental reasons, because both bus and train are far more efficient modes of transport than the private car. The district council will promote the development of a coherent public transport network throughout the district, in particular to link the existing bus routes with the new railway stations on the Robin Hood Line on the eastern side of the district. The areas within walking distance of the new stations are considered to be preferred locations for travel-intensive development. The district council will also ensure potential to walk or cycle to and from new development sites is maximised.

7.6 Based on the current distribution and frequency of bus services the following existing public transport routes provide good public transport accessibility for mixed land uses within urban areas.

Alfreton - South Normanton - Sutton-in-Ashfield
Alfreton - Blackwell - Tibshelf - Chesterfield
Blackwell - Sutton-in-Ashfield
Tibshelf - Sutton-in-Ashfield
Chesterfield - Bolsover - Shirebrook
Chesterfield - Glapwell - Pleasley - Mansfield
Langwith - Shirebrook - Pleasley - Mansfield
Shirebrook - Warsop
Chesterfield - Barlborough - Clowne - Creswell - Whitwell - Worksop

7.7 TRA 1      LOCATION OF NEW DEVELOPMENT

NEW DEVELOPMENT WILL BE LOCATED IN AREAS WHICH:

1) MINIMISE THE OVERALL NEED TO TRAVEL BY PROVIDING A MIXTURE OF LAND USES WITHIN COMMUNITIES;

AND
2) ARE HIGHLY ACCESSIBLE BY MEANS OF TRANSPORT OTHER THAN THE PRIVATE CAR;

AND
3) MAXIMISE THE POTENTIAL FOR USERS TO WALK OR CYCLE TO AND FROM THE SITE.

PASSENGER RAIL TRANSPORT

7.8 Currently in the district council's area the only operational railway lines for passenger transport are the section of the main Sheffield - London line which passes through the Erewash Valley and has a station at Alfreton which lies partly in the plan area and the Robin Hood Line which operates between Nottingham and Mansfield Woodhouse and which has recently been extended to Worksop (May 1998). New stations on the Robin Hood line have been opened at Shirebrook, Langwith/Whaley Thorns, Creswell and Whitwell. This extension of the Robin Hood Line significantly improves the sustainable transport options on the eastern side of the district. There are also a number of disused railway lines, some of which offer considerable potential for being re-opened for passenger traffic.

7.9 There are other lines which may have potential for being re-opened during the plan period. There is the possibility of re-opening the line through Clowne which would link the Robin Hood Line with Sheffield via Staveley, Beighton and Woodhouse. It has already been agreed that a feasibility study of this route should be carried out, using funds from the Single Regeneration Budget. Another route which also needs to be safeguarded is the line from Bolsover to Chesterfield via Staveley, currently operated as a mineral line but with potential for passenger usage. In the southern part of the plan area there is a stretch of line between Pye Bridge and Kirkby, via Pinxton, which may also offer potential for passenger traffic. Several other disused railway lines have already been severed in various places. These do not offer much potential for re-use as railways but parts could be used for trails for informal leisure purposes. These are protected by policy CLT 11.

7.10 TRA 2      PROTECTION OF RAIL ROUTES

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PREJUDICE THE RE-USE OF THE FOLLOWING RAILWAY ROUTES AS SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP:

1) PYE BRIDGE TO KIRKBY, VIA PINXTON
2) THE ROBIN HOOD LINE (WORKSOP TO NOTTINGHAM)
3) BOLSOVER TO CHESTERFIELD, VIA STAVELEY
4) CRESWELL TO STAVELEY, VIA CLOWNE

RAILWAY STATIONS

7.11 Alfreton is the only main line passenger railway station in the district. The council wishes to ensure that this facility is retained and continues to provide a useful service to the local community. In conjunction with the proposals under policy TRA 2 to safeguard railway lines for possible future re-use there is a need to protect the sites where new railway stations will be located. Four new stations have been opened as part of Stage 3 of the Robin Hood Line project. These stations are located at Shirebrook, Langwith/Whaley Thorns, Creswell and Whitwell. Policy TRA 3 safeguards two sites, at Clowne and Bolsover, from development which might prejudice the creation of a new station. The provision of suitable access arrangements and adequate car and cycle parking facilities has been taken into consideration at the four sites which have planning permission; due consideration should be given to these matters when the remaining sites come forward. In the longer term, development of passenger stations at Pinxton, Westhouses, Doe Hill and Barlborough will be encouraged by the district council.

7.12 TRA 3      PROTECTION OF SITES FOR RAILWAY STATIONS

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PREJUDICE THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW RAILWAY STATIONS ON THE FOLLOWING SITES AS SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP:

1) BOLSOVER
2) CLOWNE

THE MOVEMENT OF FREIGHT BY RAIL.

7.13 The movement of freight is important to the local economy but it has become increasingly concentrated onto the road system and in heavier lorries. 40 Tonne lorries with 5 axles or more have been allowed since 1st January 1999, and increases to 44 tonnes are anticipated at 1st January 2001. The impact on the environment of all lorries is significant both in terms of safety and in relation to noise and air pollution. For these reasons PPG13 - 'Transport' (1994) advises local authorities to encourage the carriage of freight by rail or water rather than by road, wherever it can provide a viable alternative. PPG13 also refers to the extraction of minerals and the need to maximise the proportion of materials moved by rail or water, through discussions with mineral extractors, and rail and water operators, and through appropriate planning obligations and conditions on planning permissions.

7.14 In the past good use has been made of rail transport for industrial purposes in the plan area. Even now there are a number of active mineral lines such as the one serving the Oxcroft Opencast Coal Disposal Point at Stanfree and the one serving the Coalite plant at Bolsover Woodhouse. There are also rail sidings at Langwith Road Wagon Works, Shirebrook. The local planning authority would not like to see these existing facilities fall into disuse and will do what it can to ensure their continuation. The local planning authority would also be pleased to see the operators of the Oxcroft Opencast Coal Disposal Point at Stanfree install a rail unloading facility so that coals for blending could be brought by rail rather than by road.

7.15 TRA 4      PROTECTION OF EXISTING RAILWAY SIDINGS

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PREVENT THE CONTINUING USE OF THE RAILWAY SIDINGS WHICH CURRENTLY SERVE THE FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTS AS SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP:

1) LANGWITH ROAD WAGON WORKS, SHIREBROOK
2) COALITE SMOKELESS FUELS, BOLSOVER
3) SEYMOUR JUNCTION, WOODTHORPE
4) OXCROFT OPENCAST COAL DISPOSAL POINT, STANFREE

7.16 Apart from those railway sidings which are still active, there are a number of others which have fallen out of use but which may offer the potential for being brought back into operation. It is important that consideration is given to this possibility whenever development opportunities arise.

7.17 TRA 5      SAFEGUARDING POTENTIAL RAILWAY SIDINGS

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PREJUDICE THE REINSTATEMENT OF RAILWAY SIDINGS AT THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS AS SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP, UNLESS IT CAN BE DEMONSTRATED THAT THE PROVISION OF SIDINGS IS NOT TECHNICALLY FEASIBLE OR WOULD NOT BE REQUIRED IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE:

1) ROUGH CLOSE WORKS, SOUTH NORMANTON
2) DOE HILL LANE OIL DEPOT, TIBSHELF
3) FORMER SHIREBROOK COLLIERY
4) LANGWITH MALTINGS
5) COALITE CHEMICALS, BOLSOVER
6) FORMER CRESWELL COLLIERY
7) WHITWELL QUARRY
8) FORMER WHITWELL COLLIERY

7.18 In addition to those sidings already referred to in policies TRA 4 and TRA 5 there may be the opportunity for introducing new sidings or rail loading and unloading facilities at other unspecified sites. It is therefore important to take this into account when considering planning applications for development alongside railway lines.

7.19 TRA 6      POTENTIAL RAIL FREIGHT FACILITIES

ALONGSIDE EXISTING OR POTENTIAL RAILWAY LINES, PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE GRANTED FOR COMMERCIAL OR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PROVIDED THAT:

EITHER
1) THE DEVELOPMENT INCORPORATES A RAIL CONNECTION FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS, WASTE OR MINERALS;

OR
2) THE DEVELOPMENT IS DESIGNED SO AS NOT TO PRECLUDE THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUCH A CONNECTION AT A FUTURE DATE;

OR
3) IT CAN BE DEMONSTRATED THAT THE CONSTRUCTION OR SAFEGUARDING OF SUCH A RAIL CONNECTION IS NOT PRACTICABLE.

THE LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY WILL IMPOSE CONDITIONS ON ANY PLANNING PERMISSION AND SEEK TO NEGOTIATE A PLANNING OBLIGATION UNDER SECTION 106 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ACT 1990 TO SECURE, OR SAFEGUARD THE POTENTIAL FOR, FREIGHT RAILHEADS.

BUSES

7.20 Despite the re-introduction of passenger rail services to the east side of the plan area, buses will continue to be the main providers of public transport. There is a reasonable network of bus routes within the plan area with internal links between the main settlements and external links to Sheffield, Chesterfield, Worksop, Alfreton, Sutton-in-Ashfield and Mansfield. Due to bus deregulation in 1986 local authorities no longer have as much control over buses, as a result of losing their powers to co-ordinate the overall provision of bus services. The county council can only contract-in operators to provide bus services which meet a social need, and in this way it can influence the size of the overall network. However, there are some measures which the local plan can take to promote the use of buses such as ensuring that any new roads or traffic management schemes are designed to allow easy access for buses, encourage new development to locate along well established existing bus routes, and encourage partnerships with bus operators to enhance bus route corridors.

7.21 TRA 7      DESIGN FOR ACCESSIBILITY BY BUS

PLANNING PERMISSION FOR MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS INCLUDING ROADS WILL ONLY BE GRANTED IF PROVISION IS MADE FOR:

1) SAFE AND CONVENIENT ACCESS TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT;

AND
2) WHERE APPROPRIATE, FACILITIES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT CIRCULATION WITHIN THE SITE.

THE LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY WILL SEEK TO ENTER INTO A PLANNING OBLIGATION UNDER SECTION 106 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ACT 1990 TO OBTAIN A CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE COST OF PROVIDING PUBLIC TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE WHERE THIS IS APPROPRIATE TO THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT.

THE LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY WILL SEEK TO NEGOTIATE WITH BUS OPERATORS AND OTHER AGENCIES TO PROVIDE IMPROVED WAITING AND PASSENGER INFORMATION FACILITIES WHEN OPPORTUNITIES ALLOW.

MOTORWAY IMPROVEMENTS

7.22 The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR), through its Highways Agency, is responsible for the M1 motorway, which passes through the local plan area. The consultation draft local plan referred to Government plans to widen sections of the M1 between Junctions 25 and 31. Since then the DETR has announced that these proposals will not be carried out. Following the publication of "A New Deal for Trunk Roads in England" in July 1998, proposals for a multi-modal study of the North South Movements in the East Midlands was included. The area covers the M1 corridor from junction 21 to junction 30. The results of the study should be available by December 2001. The current position with respect to the M1 J25-J28 junction improvements is that they have been put on hold pending the outcome of the study.

7.23 Although the district council is opposed to the motorway widening proposals, it is in favour of improvements being carried out at Junction 28 at South Normanton. These would improve traffic flow through this busy junction and reduce noise and pollution caused by queuing vehicles which particularly affect local residents and the pupils of Frederick Gent School.

MOTORWAY SERVICE AREAS

7.24 PPG13 - 'Transport' (1994) provides new guidelines concerning the provision of new motorway service areas. The guidelines indicate that the minimum gap between service areas needs to be only 24 kilometres but there should be a presumption against such developments in Green Belts. Whilst such sites inevitably have an impact on the environment the benefits which they provide to the travelling public and in job creation can outweigh these adverse impacts. In 1995 Bolsover District Council considered three planning applications for motorway service areas within the district council's area and carried out a comparative assessment of the impact of these proposals. Two motorway service areas, between Tibshelf and Newton, have been constructed to serve the northbound and southbound carriageways. It is not envisaged that there is the need, in the foreseeable future, for development of an additional motorway service area within the district.

MAJOR HIGHWAY SCHEMES TO BE SAFEGUARDED FROM DEVELOPMENT

7.25 Government guidance in PPG12 - 'Development Plans and Regional Planning Guidance' (1992) says that local plans should only include proposed road schemes on which the highway authority intend to commence work within 10 years and for which they intend to safeguard land from development. Major schemes in this category (i.e. those costing over £2 million) are identified by the Derbyshire Local Transport Plan.

Staveley-Brimington Bypass

7.26 Transport Policies and Programmes TPP (No. 25 1999/00), included the proposed Staveley-Brimington bypass which will link the existing A619 Tapton roundabout at Chesterfield with the M1 (Junction 30) at Barlborough, bypassing Brimington, Staveley and Mastin Moor. Only the eastern end of the route lies within the plan area. The land required for the implementation of this proposal was safeguarded in the Northern Parishes Local Plan and will continue to be protected until the scheme is completed.

7.27 TRA 8      STAVELEY-BRIMINGTON BYPASS

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PREJUDICE THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE STAVELEY-BRIMINGTON BYPASS, AS SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP.

Glapwell Bypass

7.28 The last Transport Policies and Programme (number 25 1999/00) refers to another major scheme in the plan area, the Glapwell Bypass. It is not in the immediate capital programme of highway works but it is included in the 'Feasibility List' of schemes for possible construction in the period 2003/04 - 2007/08. The highway authority has not yet determined the final alignment of this proposed new bypass, although two established variations exist; one running to the south of Glapwell and one to the north. The southern bypass alignment exists as an approved line, safeguarded by the highway authority pending completion of studies into the feasibility of other routes. There is little prospect of it being funded by development because development on this scale is unlikely to be acceptable on the south side of Bramley Vale/Glapwell, due to environmental constraints. An alternative northern alignment, not yet determined in detail and not shown on the proposals map is strongly favoured by the district council as it would provide significant environmental and safety improvements in Glapwell, and especially as it would improve communications with Shirebrook and Bolsover and open up development opportunities in the area. A northern route, if linked to the B6417, could also provide a bypass for Stony Houghton and New Houghton. A bypass of Glapwell is seen as an important link in strategic route improvements in the area as it will provide improved access to the A1 and M1. This is consistent with similar policies in the adopted local plans for Ashfield District and Mansfield District.

Mill Street Relief Road, Clowne

7.29 Although not in the approved Derbyshire Structure Plan or the Local Transport Plan, another major scheme which the district council is keen to see implemented is the Mill Street Relief Road, Clowne. This scheme was originally proposed in the Northern Parishes Local Plan and would facilitate creation of a pedestrianised shopping area in Clowne, thereby improving the shopping environment and general appearance of the town centre and allowing increased car parking to be developed. With improved rear servicing provision the overall congestion which occurs at peak times in Clowne town centre would be removed. This proposal is still considered the best solution for Clowne town centre and it is anticipated that developer funding of the construction and District Council provision of the land may allow the scheme to proceed. If circumstances require it, for example by way of funding or land acquisition problems, then the Mill Street (western) section of the relief road will be regarded as first priority.

7.30 TRA 9      MILL STREET RELIEF ROAD, CLOWNE

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PREJUDICE THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MILL STREET RELIEF ROAD, CLOWNE, AS SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP.

OTHER MAJOR HIGHWAY SCHEMES AND IMPROVEMENTS

7.31 Certain schemes which were mentioned in the Consultation Draft and Deposit Draft plans have now been excluded, as they are considered unlikely to be implemented during the plan period. There are two specific highway schemes which the district council would wish to see implemented, even though they do not appear in the Local Transport Plan. One is a new road linking Brookhill Road and Birchwood Lane, Pinxton, another is the diversion of Crags Road, Creswell, which will be funded by private sector finance.

NEW ROAD LINKING BROOKHILL ROAD AND BIRCHWOOD LANE, PINXTON

7.32 At the moment Pinxton suffers badly from the adverse effects of heavy vehicles on Town Street, particularly at Greyhound Corner. Most of the lorries are believed to be going between Brookhill Industrial Estate or Selston and the A38 or the M1. Added to this, the west side of Pinxton has a constricted road network which funnels a lot of traffic up to Greyhound Corner and which rules out anything but limited redevelopment in this part of the village.

7.33 There is an opportunity to retain the existing access road from the Smotherfly opencast coal site to improve links between west Pinxton and Alfreton. The access road is constructed to a specification which meets the local highway authority's standards for normal roads, except it has no footways. When the opencast operations cease in 2000, the planning permission requires the access road to be removed. In order to facilitate the construction of a link road the district council would look favourably at development proposals in this area which are consistent with the policies of the plan and which enable the retention of the existing Smotherfly access road (following completion of opencasting), for future extension to Pinxton.

DIVERSION OF B6042 CRAGS ROAD, CRESWELL

7.34 The B6042 currently takes road traffic directly through Creswell Crags. A diversion of this route has long been considered desirable so as to protect the crags. Details of such a scheme (including diagrammatic representation of a new road to the north of the crags) were included in the Northern Parishes Local Plan adopted by the council in 1990. Funding is now committed by Redland Aggregates to relocate the Crags Road, and work is underway to relocate the sewage works.

LOCAL HIGHWAY AND FOOTWAY IMPROVEMENTS

7.35 In addition to the new roads and bypasses already identified there are a number of local highway and footway improvements which the district council would wish to see carried out during the plan period where feasible. These potential projects will be reviewed and prioritised on a regular basis with a view to requesting the inclusion of five or six highest priorities in the County Council's Local Transport Plan. Alternatively the district council will seek to implement the schemes through
development proposals as and when they arise. Street Authorisation Map improvement lines which formed part of the old County of Derbyshire Development Plan were not carried forward into the local plan because they attracted little support and several criticisms. They are superseded now that the local plan is adopted.

TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

7.36 The control of new development offers the opportunity to implement transport policies, such as traffic management measures, access to public transport, and the provision of adequate facilities for pedestrians, cyclists, horse riders and people with a disability. Where significant volumes of traffic are likely to arise from a proposed development, developers will be expected to provide a traffic impact assessment in order to determine the potential effect of the proposals on the local transport network. The assessment will include consideration of the various alternative transport modes and will allow the transport impacts relating to the development to be assessed in an integrated manner.

7.37 Heavy volumes of traffic go through many shopping, housing and other environmentally sensitive areas. Much of it does not need to be there and as a result is creating a danger to pedestrians, causing environmental problems and steadily worsening living conditions. With increasing volumes of vehicular traffic, appropriate traffic management measures need to be considered. Possible measures include speed, parking and through-traffic restrictions, accident reduction schemes, wider pavements and environmental improvements. Three settlements in the plan area have been highlighted as having particular problems which require a comprehensive approach in the form of a full traffic management study. These three settlements are Shirebrook, Bolsover and Clowne. This could lead to a range of measures being introduced to alleviate the traffic problems and to improve the environment, one of which could be pedestrianisation of certain streets.

7.38 In Shirebrook proposals were included in the Shirebrook Centre Local Plan to pedestrianise the south side of the Market Place and part of Victoria Street between Station Road and King Edward Street. Unfortunately due to budget problems this scheme has only been partially implemented. The district council would like a town centre traffic management study to consider the full pedestrianisation of:

1) Victoria Street south of the Co-op supermarket service access (which would be facilitated by rear servicing - see 5.25 and SAC 5);

2) Station Road between Victoria Street and Market Street;

3) the south side of Market Place; and

4) the southern section of Patchwork Row (see diagram below)

PEDESTRIANISATION IN SHIREBROOK TOWN CENTRE

PEDESTRIANISATION IN SHIREBROOK TOWN CENTRE


7.39 In Bolsover proposals were included in the Old Bolsover-Hillstown Local Plan to prevent vehicular traffic using Middle Street as a through route, so as to allow the pedestrianisation of the area around the war memorial. Access would still need to be retained for the rear servicing areas on the Market Place and to those properties which do not have rear service access. This proposal would provide considerable benefits to pedestrians using Middle Street and also some extra space for market traders (see diagram below).

PEDESTRIANISATION IN BOLSOVER TOWN CENTRE

PEDESTRIANISATION IN BOLSOVER TOWN CENTRE


7.40 In Clowne the pedestrianisation proposals included in the Northern Parishes Local Plan were closely related to the proposals for the town centre relief road because it would only be possible to carry out the pedestrianisation of Mill Street and part of Rectory Road if the new road was constructed. Discussions between developers, landowners and the district council have so far failed to achieve a workable solution. The traffic management study will need to address this issue as it is recognised that there are still a number of problems associated with traffic and pedestrian conflict on Mill Street and the ideal solution would still be to prevent, or at least limit, the amount of traffic using it (see diagram below).

PEDESTRIANISATION IN CLOWNE TOWN CENTRE

PEDESTRIANISATION IN CLOWNE TOWN CENTRE


7.41 TRA 10      TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

WHEN GRANTING PLANNING PERMISSION FOR NEW DEVELOPMENTS THE LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY WILL WHERE APPROPRIATE SEEK TO NEGOTIATE WITH DEVELOPERS TO PROVIDE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MEASURES WHICH WILL:

1) PROMOTE ROAD SAFETY;

AND
2) REDUCE THE IMPACT OF THROUGH TRAFFIC, PARTICULARLY HEAVY GOODS VEHICLES;

AND
3) MINIMISE THE PROBLEMS CAUSED BY VEHICLE PARKING;

AND
4) GIVE PRIORITY TO THE MOVEMENT OF BUSES, CYCLISTS AND PEDESTRIANS;

AND
5) TAKE ACCOUNT OF THE NEEDS OF OTHER USERS SUCH AS PEOPLE WITH A DISABILITY AND HORSE RIDERS;

AND
6) ENSURE THE MOST EFFICIENT USE OF HIGHWAY CAPACITY TO MINIMISE CONGESTION.

WHERE SIGNIFICANT VOLUMES OF TRAFFIC ARE LIKELY TO ARISE FROM A PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT, THE PROPOSAL WILL BE ACCOMPANIED BY A TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY TO DETERMINE THE LIKELY EFFECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT ON THE LOCAL TRANSPORT NETWORK.

TRAFFIC CALMING

7.42 Traffic calming measures can be implemented by the county council as highway authority. Recent changes in legislation have made it easier to introduce traffic calming measures of the "buffer" type (for example, signing, surface changes, "gateways" and road alignment changes) and also measures of the "deflection" type (for example speed tables, chicanes and road narrowings). The county council has begun a programme of works and has given publicity to it through direct contact with parish and town councils. A method of prioritising traffic calming schemes has also been produced and is being employed by the county council to determine the schemes to be implemented. Funding from the government for such schemes has been extremely limited in recent years. Whilst most communities would probably like to have traffic calming measures, a case needs to be made for each scheme to say why it should get priority treatment. The factors considered by the highway authority in selecting schemes are:

1) Accident levels
2) Traffic type and volume
3) Environmental intrusion
4) Speed levels


7.43 The traffic calming schemes which the district council would like to see implemented and the priority to be placed on them, will be reviewed regularly as part of the council's input to the Local Transport Plan for Derbyshire, produced by the county council. This review of desired schemes will also form the basis for negotiations with developers in cases where traffic calming measures are considered necessary to mitigate the effects of new development.

7.44 TRA 11      TRAFFIC CALMING

IN GRANTING PLANNING PERMISSION THE LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY WILL NEGOTIATE WITH DEVELOPERS TO INTRODUCE TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES TO MITIGATE THE IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ON ACCIDENT LEVELS, TRAFFIC TYPE AND VOLUME, ENVIRONMENTAL INTRUSION AND SPEED LEVELS, PARTICULARLY NEAR SCHOOLS AND IN HOUSING AND SHOPPING AREAS.

WHERE SIGNIFICANT VOLUMES OF TRAFFIC ARE LIKELY TO ARISE FROM A PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT, THE PROPOSAL WILL BE ACCOMPANIED BY A TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT TO DETERMINE THE LIKELY EFFECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT ON THE LOCAL TRANSPORT NETWORK.

PROTECTION OF EXISTING FOOTPATHS AND BRIDLEWAYS

7.45 The district council recognises that there is considerable potential for adding new routes to the existing definitive network of footpaths and bridleways. Local horse riding groups, as well as individuals, have expressed concern over the shortage of bridleways in the plan area. Consultations have taken place with parish councils and local rambling organisations with a view to identifying possible additions to the footpath network. It is envisaged that proposals for new links could be pursued, in consultation with the county council's Rights of Way section, by interested groups or individuals.

7.46 New links could be secured either by claims based on historical research, directed at restoring rights of way which were left off the definitive map through oversight, or by negotiating concessionary routes where no rights of way exist. The district council will facilitate this process where appropriate. The proposals map shows stretches of disused railway lines which are appropriate for use as riding and/or walking routes and which therefore need to be safeguarded (policy CLT 11).

7.47 As well as looking at the potential for extending the footpath and bridleway networks, it is also important to ensure the protection of footpaths and bridleways that already exist and to safeguard them from the adverse effects of development proposals. The local planning authority will ensure that diversions are wherever possible convenient and environmentally attractive. Where an alternative footpath or bridleway route is necessary as a result of development proposals, the applicant will be required to apply for a path diversion order.

7.48 TRA 12      PROTECTION OF EXISTING FOOTPATHS AND BRIDLEWAYS

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT WHERE:

1) IT WOULD ADVERSELY AFFECT AN EXISTING FOOTPATH OR BRIDLEWAY;

OR
2) AN ALTERNATIVE FOOTPATH OR BRIDLEWAY ROUTE WHICH IS APPROPRIATE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ATTRACTIVE CANNOT BE SECURED THROUGH A PLANNING CONDITION OR THROUGH THE NEGOTIATION OF A PLANNING OBLIGATION UNDER SECTION 106 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ACT 1990.

CYCLING

7.49 Many of the local journeys currently made using private cars could be made using bicycles instead. Changes of this kind are essential if the necessary reductions in car use are to be achieved. The potential benefits (both for individuals and the community) are widely acknowledged, including reduction in traffic noise, fumes and danger, reduced congestion and parking, and better health through exercise.

7.50 In line with Government advice in PPG13 - 'Transport' (1994) and the National Cycling Strategy, a network of routes for cycling is identified, subject to further evaluation, along which, measures will be encouraged to make cycling safer and more attractive. The routes will not necessarily form a segregated network, but instead they will be a mixture consisting mainly of quieter back roads, bridleways and other paths or tracks which would give cyclists a relatively direct and level ride, away from heavier traffic or danger spots. The routes will link residential areas, schools, shopping areas, places of work and recreational areas. They will also link with recreational routes (particularly those on old railways which offer level riding and separation from motor traffic) and the longer distance cycle routes which pass through the district and close by it. In many cases the measures to be taken to encourage cycling might be no more than signs and information leaflets. At the other extreme, where heavily trafficked roads have to be used, separate cycle lanes may be required.

7.51 Although priority will be given to improving this network for use by cyclists, it makes sense to encourage cycling everywhere. The local planning authority will, therefore, use opportunities as they arise to improve the highway network for use by cyclists. In considering new road schemes, traffic management proposals and the layout of access roads and paths within developments, the local planning authority will seek provision of facilities to assist cyclists including access to the network of cycling routes.

7.52 The provision of secure and convenient cycle parking will be sought for all major developments and in town centres and at educational institutions. Provision of secure and convenient cycle parking at public transport interchanges will also be encouraged, including railway stations and bus connection points, to increase the opportunities to use cycles in combination with public transport. Guidelines for cycle parking are included in "Parking Requirements " (Appendix 1).

7.53 The county council has published a Cycling Strategy (1995) which demonstrates a strong commitment to improving facilities for cyclists, and to making cycling safer. The county council has formally adopted this as a policy statement and the district council fully supports it.

7.54 Details have been received from Sustrans (the registered charity which designs and builds traffic-free routes for cyclists, walkers and people with a disability) of their proposals for an Inverness to Dover Cycle Route. It is possible that the route or an off-shoot will go through the plan area using the Five Pits Trail or following a line through Hardwick Park. The district council fully supports this project, which could also act as an arterial cycle route on which a more local cycle network could be established. In addition there is the possibility of linking trails in the district with the Transpennine Trail. Central government is now showing a greater commitment towards providing facilities for cyclists and there is the opportunity to bid for funds through the Local Transport Plan process as well as other sources such as "Cycle Challenge". The district council intends to liase with adjacent authorities and local cycle groups with a view to putting together some firm proposals for cycle routes.

7.55 TRA 13      PROVISION FOR CYCLISTS

IN GRANTING PLANNING PERMISSION FOR DEVELOPMENT PROVISION WILL BE SOUGHT FOR:

1) SAFE AND CONVENIENT CYCLE ACCESS;

AND
2) CYCLE PARKING FACILITIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH GUIDANCE IDENTIFIED IN APPENDIX 1;

AND
3) LINKS WITH EXISTING OR PROPOSED CYCLE ROUTES WHERE APPROPRIATE.

THE PROVISION OF CONVENIENT AND SECURE CYCLE PARKING WILL BE SOUGHT IN TOWN CENTRES AND AT ALL MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS INCLUDING BUS CONNECTION POINTS AND RAILWAY STATIONS, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, EMPLOYMENT AND LEISURE SITES.

THE LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY IN CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL CYCLE GROUPS, THE LOCAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY, LOCAL INTEREST GROUPS AND ADJOINING LOCAL AUTHORITIES, WILL DEFINE A NETWORK OF SAFE CYCLE ROUTES BASED ON THOSE SHOWN ON THE PROPOSALS MAP FOR FURTHER EVALUATION.

PARKING

7.56 The provision of adequate parking in new developments and in existing shopping centres is important for both safety and convenience purposes. However, the availability of car parking does influence the choice of means of transport and it is, therefore, important to strike a balance when determining levels of parking spaces to ensure that the use of public transport is not discouraged. For this reason the provision of new parking spaces in town centres will be limited to short stay only with the objective of reducing commuting by car where public transport is a viable alternative. Provision also needs to be made for coach parking. When new employment-generating development is proposed it is necessary to give careful consideration to the provision of parking for employees. If the new development is well served by public transport it will not be necessary to provide car parking spaces for all employees. Where new development necessitates additional access requirements, the district council will seek contributions from developers, through S106 obligations, towards measures to assist public transport or walking and cycling instead of funding parking. It is recognised, however, that the viability of local shopping centres would be affected if some parking was not available. The district council will ensure that there are adequate short-stay shoppers' car parks provided in the town centres. Policy SAC 6 safeguards the land required for car parking in town centres.

7.57 The county council has an approved set of parking standards which provide detailed guidance on parking requirements for specific types of development. These have been modified to reflect the district council's parking requirements including provision for cycle parking (see TRA 16 above), and are included at Appendix 1. The requirements will be operated as a maximum and relaxed, where appropriate, following discussions and negotiations with developers in respect of locational factors and operational requirements. For larger developments, a travel plan will be required which will seek to facilitate and maximise the use of public transport, cycling and walking to and from the site and minimise car use, particularly for long stay commuting purposes. Details of the requirements for travel plans are given in Appendix 1.

7.58 TRA 14      PARKING PROVISION

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE GRANTED FOR DEVELOPMENT PROVIDED THAT IT MEETS THE PARKING REQUIREMENTS SET OUT IN APPENDIX 1. THESE REQUIREMENTS WILL BE REDUCED WHERE:

EITHER
1) DEVELOPMENTS ARE WELL SERVED BY PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND WHERE PARKING WOULD BE MAINLY USED FOR LONG STAY COMMUTING PURPOSES;

OR
2) DEVELOPMENTS ARE WITHIN TOWN AND LOCAL CENTRES WHICH ARE ALREADY SERVED BY ADEQUATE CENTRAL PARKING FACILITIES.

NEW PARKING PROVISION SHALL MAKE APPROPRIATE ARRANGEMENTS FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES.

DESIGN OF ROADS AND PATHS TO SERVE NEW DEVELOPMENT

7.59 When proposals for new development are being considered it is important to ensure that the layout is made as safe, efficient and attractive as possible. It is also important that the accesses, roads and paths fit in with the rest of the local network. Developments will, therefore, be generally expected to follow the design guidance issued by the highway authority, Derbyshire County Council, which will allow the highways to be handed over to the county council for future maintenance. The county's guidance may be updated during the plan period to accord with the latest government advice but, in any instances of conflict more up-to-date government guidance should be taken into account. Development proposals which receive no highway objection to the principle of development may be the subject of highway objections when the details of the development are considered.

7.60 Particular attention will be paid to whether or not the design of the layout takes account of buses, and of pedestrians, cyclists and, where appropriate, horseriders. It is also important to ensure that the layouts should be designed in a way which makes it easy for people with disabilities to use. Connections to public transport routes outside the development and to routes for walking, cycling and horseriding which pass near it will also be required. Other considerations include safe and convenient accesses, on-site parking and facilities for servicing and for emergency vehicles.

7.61 TRA 15      DESIGN OF ROADS AND PATHS TO SERVE NEW DEVELOPMENT

ROADS AND PATHS PROPOSED IN NEW DEVELOPMENTS SHALL:

1) COMPLY IN SIZE AND LAYOUT TO A STANDARD SUITABLE FOR ADOPTION BY THE HIGHWAY AUTHORITY;

AND
2) PROVIDE USERS WITH EASY ACCESS TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND ALLOW CIRCULATION OF BUSES WITHIN THE SITE WHERE APPROPRIATE;

AND
3) MEET THE NEEDS OF PEDESTRIANS, CYCLISTS, PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND, WHERE APPROPRIATE, HORSERIDERS;

AND
4) PROVIDE, WHERE APPROPRIATE, LINKS FOR PEDESTRIANS, CYCLISTS AND HORSERIDERS TO REACH ANY ADJACENT ROUTEWAYS OR TRAILS.

WHERE APPROPRIATE DEVELOPMENTS WILL BE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES AND FACILITIES FOR SERVICE AND EMERGENCY ACCESS.

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